The Flood/Post-Flood Boundary Is in the Late Cenozoic with Little Post-Flood Catastrophism by Michael J. Oard

The Flood/Post-Flood Boundary Is in the Late Cenozoic
with Little Post-Flood Catastrophism

Michael J. Oard

Table of Contents



Part I - Why post-Flood catastrophism?

Chapter 1. What is post-Flood catastrophism?

  • The Flood/post-Flood boundary
  • The nature of Flood geology
  • The status of a sophisticated Flood model
  • The big picture supports the Genesis Flood
    • Some sedimentary layers cover huge areas
    • Little or no erosion between and within sedimentary layers
    • Fossils support the Genesis Flood
  • Plan of the book
  • Catastrophism versus uniformitarianism (in-depth section)

Chapter 2. Why Is the Issue Significant?

  • A sophisticated Flood model would show we have answers
  • We can better understand the immediate post-Flood world
  • We can know which animals diversified from the Ararat region
  • We can know when the Ice Age started after the Flood
  • We will not waste time
  • We will teach accurate ideas about the Flood

Part II – The Main Locations for the Flood/Post Flood Boundary

Chapter 3. The Dispute over the Boundary

  • The role of the geological column
  • Four main locations for the Flood/post-Flood boundary
    • The Precambrian Boundary Model
    • The Paleozoic Boundary Model
    • The K/T Boundary Model
    • The late Cenozoic Boundary Model
    • The Dispute
  • How I came to believe the boundary is in the late Cenozoic
  • The evolutionary/uniformitarian geological column and timescale (in-depth)
    • The historical development of the geological column
    • How to read the geological column

Chapter 4. Should the Bible be the Basis for a Flood Model?

  • The better way
  • The Flood was global
  • The Genesis Flood would act like a flash flood
  • Walker’s biblical geological model
  • Defining criteria (in-depth)

Part III – Sedimentary Rock Evidence

Chapter 5. Huge Volume of Cenozoic Sedimentary Rocks

  • Examples of huge Cenozoic sedimentary rock layers
    • The Fort Union Formation
    • The Rocky Mountain Basins and Valleys
    • Twenty-Thousand Feet of Late Cenozoic Strata Southern California Basins
    • The Incredible South Caspian Basin
    • Thick Cenozoic sedimentary rocks elsewhere
  • Cenozoic sedimentary rocks—thickest of any geological period

Chapter 6. Thin, Widespread Sedimentary Layers

  • Formations difficult to explain by the Precambrian Boundary Model
    • The extent of the Tapeats Formation and its equivalents
    • The extent of the Redwall Formation and its likely equivalents
    • The Coconino Sandstone and its equivalents extend into Texas, Kansas, and Oklahoma
  • Formations difficult to explain by the Late Paleozoic Boundary Model
    • The Morrison Formation
    • The Navajo Formation and its equivalents
    • The Shinarump Conglomerate
  • Thin, widespread sedimentary layer in the Cenozoic—the Fort Union Formation
  • Summary

Chapter 7. Consolidated Sedimentary Rocks

  • How are sediments cemented into sedimentary rocks?
  • The Flood would provide the idea environment for the rapid cementation
  • Cementation very difficult today
  • Would huge post-Flood catastrophes help?
  • Consolidated sediments—a good boundary criterion

Chapter 8. Deposition of Widespread or Thick Precipitates

  • Huge continental "evaporites"
  • Continental margin "evaporites"
  • The most amazing "evaporite" of all
  • Numerous paradoxes for uniformitarian mechanisms
  • "Evaporites" must be deposited during the Flood
  • How could "evaporites" be deposited after the Flood?
  • "Evaporites" make an excellent criterion for the Flood/post-Flood boundary

Chapter 9. Phosphorites and High Phosphate Sedimentary Rocks

  • Phosphate rocks forming today
  • High phosphate sedimentary rock
  • Cenozoic phosphate rocks
  • Cenozoic phosphate beds favors a late Cenozoic Flood/post-Food boundary

Chapter 10. Formation of Cenozoic Carbonates

  • Early Cenozoic carbonates
  • Late Cenozoic carbonates
  • The Hualapai Limestone in the Lake Mead area
  • Large volume carbonates very likely deposited in the Flood

Chapter 11. Tremendous Cenozoic Continental Margin Rocks

  • The characteristics of the continental margin
  • The Genesis Flood formed the continental margin
  • Thick Cenozoic continental margin sedimentary rocks
  • Very late Cenozoic Flood/post-Flood boundary based on continental margins

Part IV – Fossil Evidence

Chapter 12. Mineralized Fossils

  • Mineralization of organisms rare today
  • The Flood would provide an idea environment for mineralization
  • Cenozoic mineralization
  • A few examples
  • Exceptions

Chapter 13. Thick, Pure Coal Seams Favor a Very Late Cenozoic Boundary

  • Example of a large, early Cenozoic coal seam
  • Late Cenozoic coal favors a very Late Cenozoic Flood/post-Flood boundary

Chapter 14. Amber Implies a Late Cenozoic Boundary

  • Mysterious amber observations
  • Amber common worldwide—even in the late Cenozoic
  • What trees produced amber
  • Flood log mats explain amber and organisms in amber
  • Very difficult to form amber after the Flood

Chapter 15. Oil and Natural Gas

  • Cenozoic oil and natural gas
  • Oil and natural gas indicate a late Cenozoic boundary

Chapter 16. Microorganism Layers Difficult to Accumulate Post Flood

  • Widespread, thick, pure chalk
  • Nearly pure diatomaceous beds with large vertebrate fossils
  • The difficulty with accumulating chalk and diatomaceous beds post-Flood

Chapter 17. Unique Cenozoic Mammal Fossil Characteristics

  • Where are the mammal fossils if the Flood/post-Flood boundary is at the K/T?
  • What about Cenozoic mammal graveyards?
  • How is the Cenozoic fossil order explained after the Flood?
  • Questions in mammal biogeography
  • Summary

Part V – Huge Tectonics

Chapter 18. Huge Cenozoic Vertical Tectonics

  • The Rocky Mountains uplifted about 40,000 feet during the Cenozoic
  • Colorado Plateau tectonics Cenozoic
  • Huge Cenozoic tectonics worldwide
  • How can such stupendous vertical tectonics occur worldwide after the Flood?

Chapter 19. Postulated Tremendous Horizontal Plate Movements

  • Cenozoic plate movement
  • India collided with Asia in the Cenozoic
  • Implications for post-Flood catastrophic plate tectonics

Chapter 20. Special Catastrophic Tectonics during the Cenozoic

  • What are ophiolites?
  • Cenozoic ophiolites—powerful post-Flood overthrusting of ocean crust onto land?
  • Metamorphic core complexes after the Flood?
  • Cenozoic ultrahigh-pressure minerals imply post-Flood uplifts from below 60 miles

Part VI – Geomorphological Evidence

Chapter 21. Huge Cenozoic Erosion of the Continents

  • Methods of estimating continental erosion
  • Large-scale erosion of the continents
    • Colorado Plateau
    • Appalachian Mountains
    • Other examples of massive continental erosion
  • Rocky Mountain basin erosion
  • Erosion was rapid
  • Massive erosion indicates the Flood/post-Flood boundary is in the late Cenozoic

Chapter 22 Erosional Escarpments Favor a Late Cenozoic Boundary

  • Coastal Great Escarpments
  • How can Great Escarpments be explained by post-Flood catastrophism?
  • Great Escarpments explained by Flood runoff

Chapter 23. Planation Surfaces: the Boundary Is in the Late Cenozoic

  • Planation surfaces occur in different topographical contexts
  • Planation surfaces not forming today and have been reduced in size
  • Planation surfaces worldwide
  • Planation surfaces eroded by water in the Cenozoic
  • How can planation surfaces form after the Flood?

Chapter 24. Long-Distance, Transported Hard Rocks

  • Quartzite rocks spread up to 800 miles northwest U.S. and adjacent Canada
  • Cobbles and boulders transported from other mountains ranges in the U.S.
  • Cobbles and boulders pile up deeply around the south-central Asian mountains
  • Hard rock transport puts the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the late Cenozoic

Chapter 25. Deep Valleys Carved Late in the Flood

  • Valleys and canyons can be eroded by catastrophic processes
  • Examples of deep valleys or canyons
  • How can deep canyons and valleys be eroded after the Flood?
  • Valleys and canyons carved by late Flood channelized currents.

Chapter 26. Pediments Point to a Late Cenozoic Flood/Post-Flood Boundary

  • Properties of pediments
  • Thousands of pediments defy uniformitarianism
  • Two difficult observations for uniformitarians
  • No viable uniformitarian hypothesis
  • How could pediments form after the Flood?
  • Pediments readily cut by late Flood channelized erosion during the late Cenozoic

Chapter 27. Water and Wind Gaps—Strong Evidence for a Late Cenozoic Flood/Post-Flood Boundary

  • What is a water and wind gap?
  • Thousands of water gaps worldwide
  • Water gaps—a major uniformitarian mystery
  • How can water and wind gaps be cut after the Flood?
  • Channelized Floodwater easily cuts water and wind gaps during the late Cenozoic

Chapter 28. Submarine Canyons Point toward a Late Cenozoic Boundary

  • Characteristics of submarine canyons
  • Uniformitarian difficulties
  • Submarine canyons also difficult to form from post-Flood catastrophism
  • Submarine canyons formed late in the Flood

Part VII – Climatic Considerations

Chapter 29. Cenozoic Warmth at Mid and High Latitudes not post-Flood

  • Worldwide warm climate
    • Alaska
    • Northwest United States
    • Northeast Canada
  • Mix of fossil plants from widely divergent climates
  • Computer simulations indicate cold winters
  • The boundary is in the Late Cenozoic

Chapter 30. Cenozoic Volcanic Winter Would Likely Kill All Biology

  • Large historical volcanic eruptions cause modest global cooling
  • Volcanic winter can freeze the earth
  • Cenozoic volcanism much too great to be post-Flood

Chapter 31. Impact Winter Would Decimate the Biosphere

  • Cenozoic impacts
  • Climatic effects of impacts
  • The Flood/post-Flood boundary is in the Late Cenozoic

Part VIII – Miscellaneous Evidences

Chapter 32. Radioactive Decay Eliminates the Cenozoic As Post Flood

  • RATE results
  • Too much heat during the Cenozoic
  • The radiation problem

Chapter 33. The “Mountains of Ararat” Put the Boundary in the Late Cenozoic

Part IX – The Boundary Is Clearly in the Late Cenozoic

Chapter 34. Summary of Thirty-Two Evidences

Chapter 35. Difficult or Borderline Cases

  • Australian marsupials
  • Modern and Ice Age animals from South and Central America
  • The Yellowstone super-eruptions
  • Late Cenozoic mammals southern High Plains
  • Mammal fossils in Nebraska
  • Southeast Africa hominid sites

Part X – Special Challenges to the Late Cenozoic Boundary Model

Chapter 36. The Green River Formation in the Central Rockies

  • Uniformitarian difficulties
  • The Green River Formation deposited during the Flood
    • The huge size
    • Enough oil for the United States for 100 years
    • Tropical and subtropical fossils
    • Massive erosion of the Green River Formation
    • Summary
  • What about the evidence for post-Flood lakes?
  • The difficult observations tell us more about the Flood
  • Calculating erosion over the north limb of the San Rafael Swell (in-depth)

Chapter 37. The Columbia River Basalts in the Northwest U.S.

  • Evidence the CRBs were erupted during the Flood
    • Well rounded, exotic quartzites on top of CRBs
    • Diatomite layer between basalt flows
    • The massive Thorp Gravel
    • A rounded, eroded anticline
    • Subtropical trees within and between lava flows
    • Water and wind gaps
    • Rapid, long distance basalt flows
    • Volcanic winter could occur
  • Conclusion
  • What about the evidence for a post-Flood environment? (in-depth)
    • Widespread basalt layers
    • Rare pillow lavas
    • Columnar structures
    • Welded ash
    • Pumice fragments within ash beds
    • Location at the edge of continents
    • Interbedded sediments
    • Local laterites and paleosols, some tree bearing
    • Terrestrial fossils within interbeds
    • Poor textural sorting of ash, similar to air-fall ash
    • Rocks in conglomerate from a local source
    • Abrupt lateral changes in volcanic rock type and the thickness of lavas

Chapter 38. Dam-Breach Hypothesis for the Origin of Grand Canyon

  • Uniformitarian difficulties
  • Fatal problems with the dam-breach hypothesis
    • The "lakes"
    • No evidence for the lakes
    • Long tributary canyons cannot be explain by a dam breach
  • Grand Canyon carved by late Flood channelized erosion
  • Conclusion

Chapter 39. Mammal Fossil Paleontological Challenges

[to be written]

Part XI – A Brief Analysis of the Recolonization and K/T Models

Chapter 40. The Recolonization Model Greatly Multiplies Problems

  • Why are some creationist postulating recolonization
  • The recolonization model
  • Critique of the recolonization model
    • Recolonization model assumptions
    • Geological and logical problems
      • The new crust
      • Refugia issues
      • Post-Flood recolonization?
      • Biblical problems

Chapter 41. Lack of Evidence for the K/T Boundary Model

  • The change from worldwide/continental to local/regional sedimentation
  • Tertiary cooling trend
  • Tertiary mammals of the western United States
  • Tertiary bird and mammal tracks and the Devils corkscrews
  • Tertiary volcanic deposits in the northwestern United States
  • Cooling ocean lithosphere while the mountains rose
  • Can post-Flood mass wasting explain the Cenozoic? (in-depth section)
    • Surficial sediments were lithified right after the Flood
    • The Earth likely vegetated rapidly
    • Hypercanes hypothetical and insignificant
    • Cenozoic catastrophes too devastating
    • Numerous problems with the idea of mass wasting accounting for the Cenozoic

Copyright © 2008 -   Michael Oard