Earth's Surface Shaped by Genesis Flood Runoff. Volume I: Tectonics and Erosion. Michael J. Oard

Earth's Surface Shaped by Genesis Flood Runoff
Volume I: Tectonics and Erosion

Michael J. Oard



Part I - Perplexing Problems in Geomorphology

Chapter 1. Mysteries of the Earth's Surface

  • The two paradigms of mainstream geology
  • Mysteries of geomorphology
  • What is geomorphology (in-depth section)

Chapter 2. Uniformitarian Geology Cannot Explain Most Landforms

  • Many ideas, no reasonable solutions
  • Geomorphologists have given up trying to explain landforms
  • The problem is the paradigms
  • Landforms formed by water
  • The call for an outrageous hypothesis

Chapter 3. Resuscitating Geomorphology with the Genesis Flood

  • The biblical geological model
  • The two phases of the Retreating Stage
  • The Flood was similar to a flash flood
  • The Floodwater eroded and shaped the Earth's surface

Part II - Catastrophic Tectonics

Chapter 4. How did the Floodwater Drain Off the Continents?

  • The testimony of Psalm 104:6-9
  • Psalm 104:6-9 must refer to the Flood
  • The Flood was global
  • The meaning of Psalm 104:8
  • The covering of Mount Everest "challenge"-answered

Chapter 5. Mountains Rise and Valleys Sink: Geology Demonstrates Psalm 104:8

  • Differential vertical tectonics ubiquitous on the continents
  • Small-scale tectonics on the ocean bottom
  • The timing of differential vertical tectonics
  • Geological column and timescale (in-depth section)

Chapter 6. Up to 45,000 feet of differential vertical tectonics in Wyoming

  • Enormous uplift and subsidence over Wyoming
  • The Beartooth Mountains rose while the Bighorn Basin sank
  • Uplift was fast
    • Differential vertical tectonics late in the Flood
    • The maximum is 45,000 feet
  • How the Bighorn Basin filled with sediments (in depth section)

Chapter 7. Continents Rise and the Ocean Basins Sink

  • The continents uplifted out of the Floodwater
  • The ocean basins sank
    • Huge differential vertical tectonics continental margins
    • Guyots indicate oceanic subsidence far from land
  • Seamounts and guyots (in-depth section)

Part III - Catastrophic Erosion of the Continents

Chapter 8. Up to 20,000 Feet of Erosion from the Continents

  • Huge erosion Colorado Plateau
  • Erosion from other areas of western North America
  • Possibly 20,000 feet of erosion Appalachians
  • A few erosion estimates from other continents
  • Summary
  • Methods for estimating the amount of erosion (in-depth section)

Chapter 9. Tall Erosional Remnants Demonstrate Catastrophic Erosion

  • Erosional remnants
  • Devils Tower
    • The origin of Devils Tower
    • Plains erosion believed much more than 1,000 feet
    • The changing story of High Plains erosion
    • All of North America can be leveled to sea level in less than 50 million years
    • Why should Devils Tower remain standing for millions of years
    • The Flood explanation
  • Tall erosional remnants abound United States
    • Monument Valley and vicinity
    • The Grand Canyon area
  • Rapid erosion over the Grand Canyon area (in-depth section)

Chapter 10. The Puzzle of Large Natural Bridges and Arches

  • Natural bridges
  • Rock arches
  • Assumed uniformitarian origin not observed
  • Small natural bridges can form after the Flood
  • A late Flood mechanism for large natural bridges and arches

Chapter 11. Coastal Great Escarpments

  • General features of coastal Great Escarpments
  • Uniformitarian difficulties
  • Great Escarpments formed during retreating Floodwater
  • Uniformitarian origin hypotheses of coastal Great Escarpments (in-depth section)
    • Gradual retreat of the escarpment hypothesis
    • The downwearing hypothesis
    • Slope retreat model more likely

Chapter 12. The 10,000-Foot High Great Escarpment Southeast Africa

  • The coastal Great Escarpment of southern Africa
  • Southeast Africa bowed upward
  • Too much erosion for the uniformitarian timescale
  • The coastal Great Escarpment formed by Flood runoff

Part IV - Quartzite Rocks Transported Long Distances
Northwest States and Adjacent Canada

Chapter 13. The Source of Quartzite Rocks

  • The Belt-Purcell rocks
  • Bedded quartzite mostly from the western Rocky Mountains
  • Quartzites spread east, southeast, and west
  • What is quartzite? (in depth section)

Chapter 14. Quartzite Rocks Transported up to 800 Miles East

  • Location of quartzite gravel High Plains east of Rocky Mountains
    • Cypress Hills quartzite gravel
    • Flaxville quartzite gravel
    • The Wood Mountain Plateau gravel
    • Quartzites common at lower elevations
  • The quartzites transport from the southwest
  • Transport up to 800 miles from west of the continental divide
  • Non cypflax gravels (in-depth section)

Chapter 15. Uniformitarian Speculations on Gravel Transport East

  • Long distance river transport and relief inversion fails
    • River transport does not work
    • Problems with relief inversion
  • Braidplain/tectonic boost idea-a desperate hypothesis
    • Such a "braidplain" should have incorporated abundant High Plains rocks
    • Uplifting mountains cannot provide a boost
    • The quartzite source in the eastern Rocky Mountains is low grade
  • Summary

Chapter 16. Quartzite Gravel Southwest Montana and Adjacent Idaho

  • Two distinct types of gravel
  • Valley locations for quartzite gravels
  • Quartzite gravel on top of the Gravelly Mountains
  • Thick quartzites in deep paleovalleys
  • The proliferation of names [boxed]

Chapter 17. Quartzite Gravel Northwest Wyoming

  • Quartzite gravel lag
  • Quartzites on top of the northern Teton Mountains
  • Quartzites piled 11,000 feet thick northeast of Jackson
  • Quartzites elsewhere

Chapter 18. Uniformitarian Speculations on Gravel Transport Southeast of Central Idaho

  • Local sources easily eliminated
  • No evidence for tectonic uplift to the west
  • Thrust sheet transport does not work
  • Does river transport work?
    • Quartzite must be transported 400 miles southeast
    • The paleoriver transport hypothesis
    • Why didn't the paleorivers incorporate limestone gravel?
    • Lack of a river transport mechanism
  • Summary

Chapter 19. Quartzite Gravel Location in Oregon

  • Central Oregon
  • Northeast Oregon
  • The Columbia River Valley from The Dallas to the Pacific Ocean
    • Quartzite gravel near The Dallas
    • Quartzite gravel west of Hood River
    • Quartzite gravel Portland area
    • Quartzite gravel west of Portland

Chapter 20. Quartzite Gravel Locations in Washington

  • Southeast Washington and Hells Canyon
    • Quartzite gravel extreme southeast Washington and Hells Canyon
    • Quartzite gravel along the Snake River
  • South-central Washington
    • Numerous locations on the Horse Heaven Hills
    • Quartzite gravel on the other lava ridges
    • Other locations
  • The amazing quartzites in the Puget Sound area
  • Isolated quartzites northeast Washington

Chapter 21. Uniformitarian Speculations on Gravel Transport West

  • The "ancestral Columbia River"
  • Allen's Torrential Paleoriver
  • Implications

Chapter 22. Powerful Evidence for Retreating Floodwater

  • The big picture
  • Flood runoff seems like the only possibility

Chapter 23. Gravel Transport Can Determine Late Flood Tectonics

  • The mountains rise and the valleys sink
  • The eastward shift of the "continental divide"

Part V - Resistant Rocks Transported from Other Mountains

Chapter 24. The Rim Gravel in Arizona

  • Moderate transport distance
  • Tremendous erosion of central and southern Arizona
  • Uniformitarian difficulties
  • Genesis Flood solution
  • What is Rim Gravel? (in-depth section)

Chapter 25. The Amazing Gold-Bearing Gravels of the Central Sierras

  • Deep western valleys of the Sierra Nevada Mountains
  • Valleys north of Yosemite partly filled with auriferous gravel
  • Possible channelized flow from Nevada
  • Gravel laid down in torrential flows
  • Powerful late Flood channelized currents explain the geomorphology

Chapter 26. Gravel Transported 500 miles on the Southern High Plains

  • Ogallala Gravel on central and southern High Plains
    • Huge extent
    • 500 miles of transport Texas
  • Uniformitarian conundrum
  • Consistent with flood deposition and erosion

Chapter 27. Gravel Spread Long Distances from the Appalachians

  • The Lafayette Gravel spread west of the Appalachians
  • Gravel east of the Appalachians
  • Gravel south of the Appalachians
  • Uniformitarian conundrums
  • Flood explanation
  • Checkered history of the Lafayette Gravel (in-depth section)

Chapter 28. Gravel Spread Far North of the Alaska Range

  • The Alaska Range
  • The Nenana Gravel Spread north of the Alaska Range
  • The uniformitarian wild guess

Chapter 29. Gravel Deposits around the South Central Asian Mountains

  • Gravel pattern south of the Himalayas
  • Gravel north of the Tibetan Plateau
  • Gravel shed from the Tian Shan Mountains
  • Gravel shed from the Zagros Mountains
  • Gravel in the western Sichuan Basin
  • Implications
  • Further implication for the Flood/post-Flood boundary

Part VI - Catastrophic Deposition along the Continental Margin

Chapter 30. The Sediments of the Continental Margin

  • The flat continental shelf and the drop off of the continental slope
    • Continental shelf
    • Continental slope
    • Continental rise
  • Subsurface sedimentary rocks
  • Margin basalt flows
  • Seaward dipping faults common - even on Pacific-type margins

Chapter 31. Flood runoff Formed the Continental Margin

  • The continental margin - a mysterious geomorphic feature
  • Why is the margin mysterious?
  • Continental margins mostly formed before submarine canyons
  • The Genesis Flood formed the continental margin
  • A Lake Missoula flood analog
  • The Flood ended everywhere by Day 371
  • Sea level higher at the end of the Flood than today (in-depth section)


Appendix 1. What Caused Vertical Tectonics Late in the Flood?

  • Uniformitarian scientists do not know
  • A few possible creationist mechanisms
  • Variable uplift caused by restoring forces after Flood impacts

Appendix 2. The Mystery of Guyot Formation and Sinking

  • Origin of guyots unknown
  • Not all guyots eroded at sea level
  • Tall guyots most likely flattened at or near sea level
  • Why have guyots subsided?
  • Problem of the carbonate cap not being a drowned reef
  • Guyot formation late in the Flood

Appendix 3. How Did the Thick Carbonate Cap on Atolls Form?

  • Surprisingly thick carbonate cap on Eniwetok Island-a difficulty
  • Thick carbonate cap also discovered on guyots
  • Flood model explanation
    • The carbonate cap is not reefal material
    • Could the carbonate-capped guyots and atolls represent a broken up plateau?
    • A Flood hypothesis
  • An alternative post-Flood solution

Appendix 4. Calculation of Appalachian Erosion

  • General geomorphology of the Appalachians
  • Amount of erosion based on offshore sediments

Appendix 5. Massive Erosion of Other Coastal Great Escarpments

  • The coastal Great Escarpment of Eastern Australia
  • Great Escarpments of peninsular India
  • The Great Escarpment of eastern Brazil
  • The Blue Ridge Escarpment

Appendix 6. The Cypress Hills Quartzite Gravel

  • Predominantly quartzite gravel from the Rocky Mountains
  • Relationship to the Swift Current Plateau to the northeast

Appendix 7. The Enigmatic Driftless Area

  • Uniformitarian ice age scheme does not work
  • The mystery of the erratic boulders in the driftless area

Appendix 8. Cenozoic Fossil Dating Scheme Illusory

  • The top of the Cypress Hills gravel becomes younger
  • The bottom of the cypress Hills gravel becomes older
  • All the gravels identical

Appendix 9. High Velocity Spread of Quartzite Gravel

  • Velocity derived from deformation structures
  • Velocity derived from the Cypress Hills gravel

Appendix 10. Mass Flows

  • Two main types of mass flow
  • In-between types
  • Mass flow associated with quartzite rock transport

Appendix 11. The Limestone Conglomerate of Southwest Montana

Appendix 12. Gravel Terraces of the Cascade Mountains

  • The Thorp gravel
  • Gravel terrace south of the Clackamas River, northwest Oregon
  • Very late Flood origin of the gravels

Appendix 13. Characteristic of Rim Gravel

  • Gravel on the Hualapai Indian Reservation
  • Rim gravel on the east-central Mogollon Rim

Appendix 14. Paleohydrological Analysis of Rim Gravel

  • Paleoslope estimates
  • Bedload transport hypothesis

Earth's Surface Shaped by Genesis Flood Runoff
Volume II: Planation Surfaces and Inselbergs

Part VII - The Puzzle of Planation Surfaces

Chapter 32. What is a Planation surface?

  • The difference between and erosion and planation surface
  • Planation surfaces erode by water
  • Planation surface complications
  • Planation surfaces easy to recognize
    • Paleosols and weathered surfaces inadequate
    • Accordant summits uncertain
    • Beveled surfaces are planation surfaces
    • Planation surfaces on horizontal strata
    • Planation surfaces on soft rocks very young

Chapter 33. Planation Surfaces Once Much Larger

  • Modification of planation surfaces
  • Topographic locations of planation surfaces
    • Planation surfaces sometimes on flat bottomed valleys
    • Erosion surfaces can even be along hills
    • Pediments easily observed
    • Mountaintop planation surfaces
    • Plains and plateau planation surfaces

Chapter 34. A Major Mystery of Uniformitarian Geology

Chapter 35. The Impossibility of "Old" Planation Surfaces

  • "Old" pediments
  • Super "old" planation surfaces
    • Uniformitarians apparently forced to accept the great ages
    • Fishing for preserving mechanisms
  • Powerful, objective evidence against old dates

Part VIII - North American Planation Surfaces

Chapter 36. The Incredible Cypress Hills Planation Surface

  • Four planation surfaces at different altitudes
  • The Cypress Hills planation surface
  • The cypress Hills planation surface once much larger

Chapter 37. The Flaxville and Nearby Planation Surface

  • The Flaxville plateaus
  • Flaxville erosional remnants elsewhere
  • The Wood Mountain Plateau
  • The Flaxville/Wood Mountain driftless area
  • Alden's benches number 2 and 3
  • Planation surfaces carved during the Retreating Stage of the Flood

Chapter 38. Planation Surfaces Western United States

  • Sierra Nevada Mountains
  • Rocky Mountains
    • Beartooth Mountains
    • Absaroka Mountains
    • Wind River Mountains
    • Idaho batholith
    • Front Range of the Colorado Rockies
    • Other Rocky Mountain ranges
    • What does it mean?
  • High Plains of North America

Chapter 39. Central U.S. Planation Surfaces

  • Ozark Plateau
  • Osage Plain

Chapter 40. Appalachian Planation Surfaces

  • The Piedmont planation surface
  • Are the ridges in the Valley and Ridge Province a planation surface?
  • Planation surfaces west of the Valley and Ridge Province

Chapter 41. Canadian Planation Surfaces

  • The huge Canadian Shield exhumed planation surface
  • Western Canada and Alaska
  • Northern Canada
  • Southeastern Canada

Part IX - A Survey of Planation Surfaces on Other Continents

Chapter 42. The African Surface

  • Lester King's analysis of multiple planation surfaces
  • New analysis says only one!
  • Planation surfaces capped by duricrusts

Chapter 43. Australian Planation Surfaces

  • Eastern Australia
  • The Nullarbor Plain
  • Western Australia
  • The beveled ridges of isolated mountain ranges
  • Planation surface around Ayers rock

Chapter 44. South American Planation Surfaces

  • The Andes Mountains
  • The Guayana Shield north of the Amazon River
  • Planation surface south of the Amazon River
  • The character of the planation surfaces

Chapter 45. Planation surfaces United Kingdom

  • Southeast England
  • Wales
  • Scotland
  • Ireland

Chapter 46. Western European Planation Surfaces

  • Norway
  • Sweden and Finland
  • France
  • Spain
  • Corsica and Sardinia
  • Germany
  • The Alps
  • Italy

Chapter 47. Eastern European Planation Surfaces

  • The Russian platform
  • The Carpathian Mountains
  • Poland/The Czech Republic
  • The Balkan Peninsula
  • The Caucasus Mountains
  • Turkey and around the Black Sea

Chapter 48. Other Continental Planation Surfaces

  • Asia
  • Antarctica
  • Greenland
  • New Zealand

Chapter 49. Planation Surfaces: Summary and Implications

  • Summary
  • Implications

Part X - All Uniformitarian Hypotheses Fail

Chapter 50. Davis's Failed "Cycle of Erosion"

  • Davis' lucky break
  • Davis applied evolution to landforms
  • The hypothesis rejected
  • Hypothesis believed mainly because of social variables

Chapter 51. Does the Weathering Hypothesis Explain Planation Surfaces?

  • The weathering hypothesis
  • Weathering does not form planation surfaces
  • Many more difficulties

Chapter 52. All Geomorphological Hypotheses Fail

Part XI - The Dilemma of Inselbergs

Chapter 53. Inselbergs

  • Different types of inselbergs
  • Impressive inselbergs
  • The City of Rocks south-central Idaho

Chapter 54. The Mysterious Tower Karst

  • Unusually high tower karst
  • Tower karst mostly found in the tropics
  • Origin of tower karst a mystery

Chapter 55. Inselbergs and Tower Karst Tens of Millions of Years Old?

  • Inselbergs
    • Some weather fast today
    • Their "ages" a major mystery
  • Tower karst

Chapter 56. Uniformitarian hypotheses Fail

  • Inselbergs not necessarily harder with fewer cracks
  • Two flawed hypotheses
    • King's hypothesis
    • The weathering hypothesis

Part XII - Planation Surfaces and Inselbergs Carved by the Flood

Chapter 57. Early Retreating Stage Erosion and Planing

  • Planation surfaces formed by a large-scale flow of water
  • Sheet flow plans the land
  • High plains planation northern Montana and adjacent Canada
  • Erosion surfaces formed central Montana
  • Planation and erosion surfaces sheared worldwide
  • Planation surfaces deformed and eroded
  • Duricrusts form on some planation surfaces
  • Planation surfaces young-uniformitarian dates greatly exaggerated

Chapter 58. Inselbergs Left behind on Planation Surfaces by Flood Runoff

  • What variables cause inselbergs?
  • A possible mechanism for the formation of tower karst
  • What caused flared slopes and tafoni on some inselbergs
  • Flared slopes formed by water during the Ice Age
  • Exfoliation erosion implies young bornhardts
  • Lake Missoula flood examples
  • Some inselbergs orientated
  • Summary


Appendix 15. Possible Confusion in Identifying Surficial Planation Surfaces

  • Depositional surfaces
  • Terminology problems
  • Exhumed planation surfaces

Appendix 16. "Dating" Landforms and Anomalous Results

  • "Very old" planation surfaces
  • Uniformitarianism severely challenged
  • "Old" landforms dated by radiometric methods
  • Cosmogenic radioisotopes reinforce little erosion of landforms

Appendix 17. Planation Surfaces Uinta Mountains

  • Wild Mountain upland planation surface
  • The Gilbert Peak erosion surface

Appendix 18. Documentation of Planation Surface Southeast Canada

Appendix 19. Other Hypotheses for the Origin of Planation Surfaces

  • Marine planation
  • Walther Penck's anti-Davis reaction
    • The hypothesis
    • Problems with the hypothesis
  • Lester King's parallel retreat of slopes
    • The hypothesis
    • Problems with the hypothesis
  • Hack's dynamic equilibrium hypothesis
    • The hypothesis
    • Problems with the hypothesis
  • Crickmay's lateral planation and unequal erosion hypotheses
    • The hypotheses
    • Problems with the Hypotheses

Appendix 20. Poorly Known Origin of Flared Slopes and Tafoni

  • Flared slopes
  • Tafoni

Earth's Surface Shaped by Genesis Flood Runoff
Volume III: Channelized Flow Landforms

Part XIII-Rapid Channelized Erosion

Chapter 59. The Origin of Valleys

  • The great debate over the origin of valleys
  • But some valleys modified by ice
  • Rapid excavation of valleys
  • Strath terraces
  • Vertical walled valleys young
    • Post-Flood carving of vertical walled canyons
    • U-shaped valleys transform into V-shape with time
    • "Old" U-shaped valleys catastrophically carved and young
  • Late Flood incision of valleys

Chapter 60. Strath Terraces

  • Strath terraces common along valleys all over the world
  • Some strath terraces likely formed after the Flood
  • Origin of most strath terraces unknown
  • High strath terraces formed during channelized Flood runoff

Chapter 61. Entrenched Meanders

  • Meanders common
    • Meanders in submarine canyons
    • Meanders in water gaps
  • The puzzle of entrenched meanders
  • Rapid uplift and channelized Flood erosion may account for entrenched meanders

Chapter 62. Underfit Streams

  • Twenty to fifty times more water to carve the valleys
  • Controversy over the amount of water
  • Ice Age runoff and/or channelized Flood erosion?

Chapter 63. What Caused Poljes?

  • What caused the flat depression floor?
  • Origin of poljes a puzzle
  • Could channelized Flood erosion form poljes?

Part XIV - The Mystery of Pediments

Chapter 64. Pediments-Another Remarkable Landforms

  • What is a pediment
  • Pediments easy to recognize
  • Pediments not confined to dry areas
  • Remarkably flat and often capped by a veneer of rounded gravel
  • Pediments can be sizeable
  • Gentle slopes
  • Multiple valley pediments
  • Pediments beveled in granite and dipping sedimentary rocks

Chapter 65. Pediments Common But Not Forming Today

  • Pediments common worldwide
  • Pediments formed in the past by water
    • But some geologists think pediments are forming today
    • Others face up to the evidence of past formation
    • Geomorphologists ever hopeful of finding a mechanism

Chapter 66. No viable Uniformitarian Hypothesis

  • Crickmay's superflood hypothesis
  • Two fatal problems for all uniformitarian hypotheses
    • Far traveled exotic rocks
    • Pediment passes and domes
  • No viable uniformitarian hypothesis

Chapter 67. Pediments Formed in the Flood Retreating Stage

  • A pediment formation hypothesis
  • Explanations for pediment variability
  • Formation of pediment passes
  • Mainly formed in Channelized Flow Phase of the Flood
  • Why are pediments missing from some valleys?
  • Summary
  • Pediments point to a global Flood, not a local flood!

Chapter 68. Central Montana Pediments and Channelized Flood Runoff

[to be written]

Chapter 69. The Complicated Pediments in the Bozeman area.

[to be written]

Part XV - Submarine Canyons

Chapter 70. Submarine Canyons-Offshore "Grand Canyons"

  • "Grand Canyons" perpendicular to the continental margin
  • Submarine canyons common
  • Two types of submarine canyons
  • Amazing chasms
    • Sometimes start in shallow water
    • The length
    • The depth of the canyon walls
    • The volume
    • Other amazing properties

Chapter 71. How Are Submarine Canyons Related to River Valleys?

  • What is the similarities to rivers?
  • Contrary observations
  • Submarine canyons now older than the Ice Age
  • Summary

Chapter 72. Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan

  • The Monterey Submarine Canyon
    • The length
    • Carved through a planation surface
    • Tributary canyons
    • How is Monterey Canyon related to coastal features?
    • A meandering canyon
    • Monterey Canyon indicates little movement of the western San Andreas fault zone
  • The giant Monterey submarine fan

Chapter 73. Two Uniformitarian Hypotheses

  • Random submarine slides
  • Submarine slides from river deposition
    • Problems with this mechanism
    • Example of the Eel River "delta" northern California
    • Most deltas do not have submarine canyons
  • The origin of submarine canyons unknown

Chapter 74. Explosive Late Flood Origin of Submarine Canyons

  • Canyons cut after continental margin sediments deposited
    • Submarine canyons carved through forearc ridges and basins
    • Rare buried submarine canyons show continental margin sediments deposited first
    • Submarine canyons carved very late in the Flood
  • How were the canyons carved late in the Flood?
    • Focused deposition of a huge amount of debris followed by rapid sliding
    • The example of the Var submarine slide
    • Not related to the river, but to the valley
  • The Var submarine slide (in-depth section)

Part XVI - The Conundrum of Water and Wind Gaps

Chapter 75. The Mystery of Water and Wind Gaps

  • The erroneous definition of a water gap
    • The problem of a hypothesis being part of a descriptive definition
    • The definition is too narrow
  • What is a wind gap?
  • A major mystery

Chapter 76. Sensational Water Gaps North America

  • The Snake River through Hells Canyon
  • The Shoshone River water gap
  • The Green River water gap through the Uinta Mountains
  • Yakima River water gaps
  • Miscellaneous other water gaps Rocky Mountains
  • Unaweep Canyon wind gap
  • Water gaps Canada
  • Water gaps Alaska

Chapter 77. Water and Wind Gaps Appalachian Mountains

  • Water gaps northern Appalachians
  • Water gaps central Appalachians
  • Enigmatic water gaps southern Appalachians
  • Aligned water gaps
  • Multiple wind gaps
  • Appalachian water and wind gaps a mystery

Chapter 78. Eurasian Water Gaps

  • Himalaya Mountains water gaps
  • The anomalous Zagros Mountains water gaps
  • Other Asian water gaps
  • European water gaps
    • Scandinavia and the United Kingdom
    • Continental Europe

Chapter 79. Water Gaps on Other Continents

  • African water gaps
  • Australian water gaps
  • Water gaps South America
  • Summary of a remarkable geomorphological feature

Part XVII - Gaps in Uniformitarian Hypotheses

Chapter 80. Antecedent Stream Hypothesis-Mostly Rejected

  • Origin of the hypothesis
  • Should apply to most mountains
  • Many severe problems with the hypothesis
  • Antecedence never had any evidence

Chapter 81. Superimposed Stream Hypothesis-An Act of Desperation

  • What is the superimposed stream hypothesis?
  • The classic Appalachian Mountains explanation
  • Southern England examples
  • Little or no evidence for superimposition

Chapter 82. Stream Piracy Hypothesis-The Final Fallback Position

  • The "evidence" for stream piracy
  • The origin of Grand Canyon by Stream Piracy?
  • Equivocal evidence
  • Little real evidence for stream piracy

Chapter 83. Little If Any Evidence for Uniformitarian Hypotheses

  • Did the river cut the gap?
  • Water gaps only significant if the river could have easily gone around
  • Researchers say little or no evidence
  • Overspill hypothesis for the origin of Grand Canyon?
  • Special, but unlikely, combinations of mechanisms (in-depth section)

Part XVIII - Late Flood Origin of Water and Wind Gaps

Chapter 84. Channelized Flood Flow cuts Water and Wind Gaps

  • Rapid cutting of water and wind gaps during Flood runoff
  • Water and wind gaps are young landforms
  • Did water gaps form after the Flood? [boxed]
    • The Lake Bonneville Flood
    • Ice Age lakes can overtop ridges
    • Possible stream capture by the Atchafalaya River

Chapter 85. The Example of the Lake Missoula Flood

  • The Lake Missoula flood
  • Palouse canyon water gap
  • Devils Coulee wind gap
  • Large floods carve downstream water and wind gaps

Part XIX - Summary and Implications

Chapter 86. Summary

  • Landforms explained by the Genesis flood
  • The Flood was real
  • Late Flood differential vertical tectonics and its geomorphological effects
  • Planation surfaces and inselbergs caused by Flood runoff
  • Channelized flow features follow sheet erosion

Chapter 87. You Can Trust the Bible-All of It

  • But the global Flood was real
  • Therefore, we can trust the whole Bible


Appendix 21. Three Fatally Flawed Uniformitarian Hypotheses for Pediments

  • Lateral planation
  • The sheetflooding hypothesis
  • The weathering hypothesis

Appendix 22. Monterey Submarine Canyon Plate Tectonics Puzzle

Appendix 23. Mass Movements in the Formation of Submarine Canyons

  • Turbidity currents and debris flows
  • The Grand Banks slide

Copyright © 2008 -   Michael Oard